If you have been following me lately, I have been using the words prebiotics and polyphenols a lot in relation to gut health. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates and polyphenols found in plant foods that can positively influence the growth of good gut bacteria (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, as well as others), thereby reducing the growth of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria and ultimately improve health. When bacteria consume these prebiotics, they themselves produce short chain fatty acids and other metabolites that influence metabolic pathways. Why is this important?? It is important because this means that your gut bacteria directly influence your health and susceptibility to chronic disease and that your diet and lifestyle directly reflects what bacteria call your gut home.
Since many people have heard the term prebiotics in relation to certain fibers, I want to talk about polyphenols today. Polyphenols are part of a large family of plant compounds collectively called phytochemicals or phytonutrients. In the plant kingdom, polyphenols act as a defense mechanism to increase the survival of the plant. In humans, research has found that phytonutrients offer both preventive and therapeutic benefits to combat chronic disease. Interestingly only 5-10% of consumed polyphenols are absorbed in the small intestine. The remainder reach the large intestine where they are consumed by bacteria which generate bioactive compounds with the ability to both influence bacterial residency (promoting good and reducing bad bacteria) in the gut and human health. Polyphenol rich foods include tea, coffee, cacao, dark chocolate, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, beans/legumes, and red wine. However, the foods with the highest concentration of polyphenol content by weight are herbs and spices! If you are just a salt and pepper kind of gal, then consider adding more FLAVOR to your meals. Here is a list of the top polyphenol rich plant foods (based on mg per 100g). Cloves, peppermint, star anise, cacao/dark chocolate, oregano, flaxseed, and elderberry are in the top ten. Each category below is ranked from highest to lowest polyphenol content. Although many of you may see your favorite beverages on this list, I encourage you to aim for a wide assortment. Each polyphenol has its own unique ability to benefit your gut microbiome. Therefore, the more variety the merrier! And just because you do not see your favorite plant food on the list (like kale for example), doesn't mean it is not wonderful in other ways.
So, let’s look at some research in regards to polyphenols and bacteria!
A recent study investigated which of the following seven culinary spices best support the growth of either Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus. The spices studied include black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, oregano, rosemary, and turmeric. Researchers found that all spices except turmeric enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. While all spices suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Inspired to add more spice to you cooking?? Then make your own herb garden, exciting spice blends, or buy fresh herbs and spices locally. Personally, I love making Madras Curry, Ras el Hanout, and Dukkah!
Another research study looking at green tea polyphenols found that daily consumption of green tea altered oral and gut microbiota favorably. After consuming 400ml (~ 2 cups) of green tea per day for two weeks researchers found that the participants had reduced levels of lipopolysaccharide (very inflammatory endotoxin) producing Bacteroidetes, and increased levels of bacteria producing short chain fatty acids in their stools. Green tea consumption was also associated with a reduction of pathogenic oral bacteria fusobacterium. Are you ready to drink more green tea?? Cold brew green tea (recipe to come soon!) contains the highest concentration of polyphenols and the lowest amount of caffeine. This is absolutely a win-win! However, traditionally brewed green tea is also a great choice if you are not sensitive to caffeine.
And if enjoying flavorful meals and sipping cold brew green tea aren’t enough reasons for you to jump on the polyphenol train, cacao (this includes dark chocolate >/=75% cacao) ), also improves the microbiome favorably. Studies have found that dark chocolate consumption in humans encourages the growth of both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, but ultimately tends to favor Lactobacillus growth more. Here is a delicious recipe for double chocolate brownie bites (made without sugar) that hit the spot oh so good!
Do you have SIBO or IBS? Then you may want to tread carefully. Some polyphenol rich foods are better tolerated than others due to their unique fiber and carbohydrate content. Herbs and spices (except garlic and onion powders), cacao, green tea, some berries, as well as extra virgin olive oil are generally well tolerated. Work with a skilled SIBO dietitian to guide you based on your unique tolerance.
Eat the rainbow and reap the benefits!
Are you incorporating a wide variety of these polyphenol rich foods into your diet daily??
In practice, many of my clients come to me not eating enough protein, which is leaving them hangry and fatigued. Often they tell me they cannot go for long periods without eating, and are constantly snacking or grazing. Plus, they are not noticing any improvement in lean body mass despite increased effort at the gym or on the trails.
Although the RDA for dietary protein is 0.8g/kg per day (about 10% of calories), this is based largely on the MINIMUM needed to avoid deficiency, but not to support optimal metabolic health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) for protein is 10-35% of daily calories. However, research suggests that 1.2-1.6g/kg (or about 20% of calories) is ideal for metabolic benefits. For an average 130lb woman eating ~1800kcal per day that equals to 75-90g per day.
Interestingly, on average Americans eat about 16% of their daily calories from protein. A vast majority (60%) of that protein is coming in at ONE meal and less than 15g of protein is consumed at breakfast. This practice may not be helping Americans. Researchers have found that a protein intake of ~30g per meal has positive effects on lean body mass and muscle protein synthesis when compared to meals containing <20g per meal. Furthermore, spacing total daily protein out over 3-4 meals is a very positive habit to enforce for many reasons. Find out more below.
So why is protein important?? Protein is required for cellular growth and repair, the production of enzymes that are necessary for sustaining life, for hormone production (thyroid, dopamine, adrenaline, melatonin, insulin, etc), for proper fluid balance in the body, nutrient transport and storage, for healthy immune function, and soooo much more. Plus, protein helps increase our satiety hormone leptin, speeds up our metabolism, improves blood sugar control, and reduces snacking behavior. Therefore, by spacing protein out evenly over 3-4 meals per day, you will feel more energized, free of constant cravings, and better to able to listen to your hunger and satiety cues. Without enough protein, especially quality protein, our health declines.
What is quality protein? The type of protein you choose is definitely important to meet your health goals. Conventional meats and dairy have a less desirable nutrient profile. Therefore, I recommend a variety of grass-fed beef, wild caught seafood, pasture raised poultry and eggs, pasture raised pork, organic beans and legumes, and organic grass-fed dairy if tolerated. Organic whole grains, nuts, and seeds also provide small amounts of protein. Supplements such as grass-fed collagen peptides, grass-fed whey protein, or organic pea/hemp/rice protein powders can be helpful to meet your goal.
Although protein is very important, more isn't always better. Pairing a small portion (4oz) of protein with both carbohydrates and fats is ideal. Not only does this macronutrient balance increase satisfaction (and satiety), it also increases nutrient density, and supports hormone balance.
Meats, Seafood, & Poultry — 3 ounce portions or ~ 1/2 cup (20-25g)
Beans/Legumes — 1 cup cooked (~15g)
Meat Alternatives (Extra Firm Tofu/Tempeh) - 3oz (~15g)
Whole Grains — 1 cup cooked (~8g)
Nuts & Seeds — 1/4 cup whole (~9g), 2 T Nut Butter (~6g)
Dairy Products — 1 cup milk, regular yogurt, or 1 oz cheese (~8g)
Chicken Eggs — 1 egg (6g)
Protein Powders — 1 serving (10-20g) varies a lot depending on the product
To those of you who made it to the end, thank you! Are you mindful of your protein intake? Are you already meeting the goal of 25-30g per meal or is it a struggle for you? I would love to hear from you. Let me know in the comments below!
If you do not or cannot drink cow's milk (or goat and sheep) and rely solely on non-dairy milks, then this post is for you! It's high time for a nut milk makeover!! Not only to boost your health and keep your wallets a bit more full, but also to keep you out of the grocery store as often during these quarantine days. The only tools you need to make a creamy, rich, and smooth nut milk is a high speed blender and a fine mesh nylon nut milk bag. It's soooo simple to make and the quality and cost far outweighs what you can buy at the store. I know I might be preaching to the choir, but there is no shame in repeating it---because we all get lazy, me included. So here is some inspiration to cultivate a nut milk routine.
WHY YOU SHOULD PRIORITIZE HOMEMADE NUT MILK
Firstly, commercial nut and grain milks are expensive when really they shouldn't be. For example, Califia Almond Milk (which is one of my preferred commercial brands because it doesn't contain carrageenan and is fortified with calcium), costs ~$5 for 6 cups of nut milk. The ingredient list is as follows: water, almonds, natural flavors, calcium carbonate, sunflower lecithin, sea salt, locust bean gum, gellan gum, potassium citrate. For 45kcal per cup you get 450mg of calcium (via calcium carbonate fortification), and about 5 conventional almonds. That's it, for 80 cents per cup of non-organic nut milk. Wow.
Secondly, commercial nut and grain milks (and yogurts), are often lacking in calcium because the ingredients are naturally low in calcium. This is unfortunate because dairy free diets if not properly implemented with the guidance of a dietitian or knowledgeable health care provider, may contribute to calcium deficiencies. Some brands, like Califia, are fortified...which is great. However, they use calcium carbonate, a calcium supplement that has a low absorption rate. In addition, absorption is further compromised in situations where individuals have low stomach acid. As we age, we naturally produce less stomach acid, therefore the elderly struggle the most. However, even younger individuals live with inadequate stomach acid levels due to chronic stress, use of TUMS and PPIs, H. pylori infections, hypothyroid, etc. Furthermore, calcium carbonate can be constipating, and cause gas and bloating. So long story short, it's not ideal for many individuals, especially if you are dealing with digestive issues.
Thirdly, store bought nut milks contain a lot of stabilizers like locust bean gum, gellan gum, guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan, etc. Although these ingredients are deemed safe by the FDA, they may contribute to digestive symptoms such as bloating or discomfort in some individuals. I personally, try to limit gums and additives when possible.
IS THE COST AND TIME WORTH IT??
Heck yes! Why spend so much $$ on commercial non-dairy milks for such little quality?? If you are only getting 5-6 almonds per cup, with a good dose of poorly absorbed calcium carbonate, and a handful of fillers, why not make your own with a variety of nuts and seeds?!?
What is the cost? For organic, raw, sprouted, and fortified Mineral Rich Pumpkin Seed Milk, I spent close to $2.00 for a 48oz serving (including the fortification with supplements). This comes to about 35 cents per cup. Now, who can beat that price for the quality? If I wanted to increase the creaminess with a full cup of pumpkin seeds versus just a 1/2 cup, it would come to $3 for 48oz, or about 50 cents per cup. If you compare that to a commercial equivalent, Elmhurst Unsweetened Milked Almonds (which provides 19 almonds per cup and costs about $7), it would cost you about $1.75 per cup....and the nuts are not even organic, nor is there calcium added. So, you definitely come out on top if you make it at home. And if you think it takes too much time, think again. From start to finish it takes about 5 minutes to make homemade nut milk. Much less time than a quick grocery store run.
THE EVER CHANGING MINERAL RICH NUT MILK
So my version of nut milk, is not just any nut milk. Most recipes you see on the web are for almond milk, cashew milk, sunflower milk, etc. Yeah they are great, but why not mix it up a bit? Each nut and seed has unique nutritional benefits. Almonds are rich in vitamin E and magnesium, Brazil nuts are rich in selenium, pumpkin seeds are rich in magnesium and zinc, sesame seeds are rich in calcium, and on and on it goes. Why stick with just the same old almond, cashew, or even oat? Why not make a super rich and creamy nut/seed milk that is always changing??
In addition to choosing a variety of different nuts and seeds, I also make sure to add an easily absorbed powdered calcium supplement, either calcium citrate or whole bone meal powder. Calcium citrate is absorbed about 25% better than calcium carbonate and it does not require stomach acid for absorption. Sometimes, I also like to add sunflower lecithin powder for added creaminess and emulsification. Without the sunflower lecithin, homemade nut milks tend to separate. Plus there is an extra bonus because sunflower lecithin is an excellent source of choline! Unfortunately, 90% of Americans are not consuming adequate amounts of choline per day. Foods richest in choline include liver and egg yolks, as well as animal proteins. Some plants provide choline (Brussel sprouts, soy, and broccoli) but in much lesser amounts. Generally, women need at least 425mg per day and up to 550mg if they are breastfeeding. Therefore, sunflower lecithin can be a great tool for anyone limiting the previously mentioned foods.
HIGHLIGHT ON MY CURRENT FAVORITE NUT & SEED COMBO
These nuts are pretty amazing because just one nut meets over 100% of your daily selenium needs. What is selenium? It is a trace mineral that along with iodine, and zinc plays a very important role in healthy thyroid function and helps reduce oxidative stress within the body. A diet low in selenium can thus have far reaching effects on metabolism, energy, and ability to combat free radicals. However, as with everything too much can be harmful to our bodies as well. Since Brazil nuts are the most concentrated source of selenium, limiting yourself to 1-2 per day is all you need.
If you haven’t incorporated pumpkin seeds into your life, you should start now. These tasty seeds are super rich in minerals zinc and magnesium, both of which are very important for optimal health. Interestingly, many people tend to be deficient in magnesium, either due to poor intake of whole grains, nuts and seeds, or also because the soil is becoming more depleted of this mineral. Either way focusing on getting more magnesium into your diet can have far reaching positive effects. Magnesium can help reduce headaches, reduce cramping, increase overall energy, control blood sugar, and just generally help reduce inflammation. Plus, organic pumpkin seeds are very cheap. What more do you want?
So, get out your blenders, purchase a nylon nut milk bag (it makes all the difference, trust me), and get creative! Swap the pumpkin seeds for sunflower seeds for another low cost alternative, or use a variety of different raw nuts and seeds that you have available right now in your home. Either way, mixing it up, is the best. Out with the old, and in with the MINERAL RICH! No more slacking, it's time for a nut milk revolution!!
Fortified Mineral Rich Pumpkin Seed Nut Milk
Makes ~6 cups
1/2 - 1 cup raw organic pumpkin seeds (or whatever variety of raw nuts and seeds you wish to use)
1-2 organic Brazil nuts
2 tablespoons NOW Sunflower Lecithin Powder
3 teaspoons NOW Calcium Citrate Powder
1/4 teaspoon sea salt
Splash vanilla (optional)
1-2 tablespoons maple syrup/honey or 1-2 pitted medjool dates (optional)
Place the nuts and seeds into a bowl and cover with warm water. Allow the nuts and seeds to soak 4 hours or overnight. Strain and rinse the nuts and seeds and put them into the blender. Add 5 cups water and the remainder of the ingredients. Blend on high for 60 seconds or longer.
Line a bowl with the nut milk bag and pour the nut milk into the bag. Squeeze out the milk, leaving behind the nut pulp and fibers. Discard. Add an extra cup of water to your bowl to increase volume to 6 cups if desired. Transfer to a large jar or bottle and store in the refrigerator for up to a week.
Note: If you want to kick it up a notch you can also add 1 teaspoon of spirulina to the recipe. Read more about spirulina and its' benefits here, here, and here!
Nutrition Facts (per cup)- using 1/2 cup pumpkin seeds: 90kcal, 3.2g protein, 4.5g carbs, 7g fat with 23% of daily value of calcium, 16% of magnesium, 45% selenium, 5% of iron and zinc, and 17% of choline.
Fresh seasonal fruit is so delicious! There is nothing that compares to a bright red strawberry picked in the middle of June or a fresh papaya drizzled with lime juice when traveling in Hawaii. Especially in the hotter months, cooler water-rich foods like fruit are more often desired than a hot meal.
Unfortunately, with the popularity of low carbohydrate diets many individuals are fearful of fruit. Many paleo and low carb diet advocates recommend sticking to only small amounts of low sugar fruits like berries stating that other fruit provide too much unnecessary sugar. I have had multiple patients in practice that are too afraid to eat more than a ½ cup of berries per day!
I agree that it is important to reduce your intake of added refined sugars like high fructose corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, sugar, and other processed foods. However, this does not immediately place fruit into the same category. Although fruit does contain sugar (glucose and fructose), it is not found in the same concentration as high fructose corn syrup in sodas, pastries, pancake syrups, etc. For example, soda contains a sugar ratio of 60% fructose to 40% glucose. One 20 oz bottle of Coke contains roughly 36 grams of fructose. Now compare that to a banana, which contains 7 grams of fructose, or a medium sized apple with 13 grams fructose. When do you sit down and eat 7 bananas in one sitting? Never! Plus, that banana comes in a completely different package, rich in fiber, and made by nature.
However, this way of thinking can cause harm. You are not addicted to sugar if you enjoy fruit. Fruit is rich in easy to digest carbohydrates, antioxidant rich vitamins and minerals, gut healing fiber, and anti-inflammatory polyphenols. Plus, they are easy to throw into a bag and hit the road. Rather, if fruit is lacking in your diet you may be missing out on a lot of health benefits.
REASONS WHY FRUIT ARE GOOD TO EAT
Fruit are Rich in Polyphenols: Polyphenols are plant compounds that are found most concentrated in the outer parts of plants. These chemical compounds have been studied in relation to their potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities. Each type of polyphenol has different health benefits. Therefore, it is important to consume a variety of unpeeled fruit (unless it's a melon or banana of course). Polyphenols have been shown to help:
Fruit Are Rich in Soluble Fibers and Prebiotics:
Soluble fibers and prebiotic fibers help support the growth of good gut bacteria. When these fibers reach the large intestine, they are fermented by bacteria and produce short chain fatty acids which help fuel colon cells and prevent colon cancer.
Fruit Are Rich in Vitamin C: Vitamin C is a nutrient that is very sensitive to heat, light, and air. Therefore, whole fruit become an excellent source of vitamin C. It is suggested that the current RDA for vitamin C is too low (75-90mg) and that we should be shooting for at least twice as much from whole foods. Especially if you are under a lot of stress, exercise a lot, or have an inflammatory condition, getting plenty of vitamin C is essential.
Fruit Are Easy to Digest Whole Food Carbohydrates for Active People:If you are on the go and active, especially in the summer months, then fruit can be a great way to fuel your activity. Generally, your carbohydrate intake increases with your amount of activity. If you are unsure what to pack to fuel a mountain bike ride, trail run, or hike, pack some fruit! It comes in its own protective barrier, and is easy to eat!
Fruit Can Help You Digest Protein: Some fruit contain unique enzymes that aid in digesting proteins and help reduce inflammation, support wound healing and relive constipation. You can even buy digestive enzymes in supplement stores made with these fruit enzymes.
Daily fruit consumption depends on the individual. Some can tolerate more than others due to activity levels and certain health conditions. For example, individuals with a fructose intolerance or severe gut imbalances may not do well with apples, pears, cherries, figs, and mangos. On the other hand, those that have metabolic disorders like diabetes and PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) may have to stick to lower sugar fruits like kiwi and berries or pair their fruit with protein for better blood sugar balance. If you have any of these issues it may be best to work with a dietitian to help you find out what fruit and what portion is right for you.
Don't fear fruit!! If you are a healthy individual, eating seasonal organic fruit to your liking can provide many health benefits and should not be avoided. I generally recommend 2 servings of fruit per day and adjust the types of fruit based on the individual needs of the patient.
Many people have heard of vitamin D and understand its relationship to the sun. I often hear people say “soaking up my vitamin D”, when a nice, sunny day arrives. But is it really as simple as that? Of course not. Today I will clarify what vitamin D is, why you need to make sure you are getting enough, and how to make sure you are getting what you need.
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin with hormone like properties that is found naturally only in a few foods and can be synthesized in the skin from the sun’s UVB rays. It is commonly known for its facilitative role in bone health by increasing calcium absorption and for its role in improving seasonal affective disorder. However, many people do not know that it also is required for proper immune function, hormone health, cellular growth and development, and blood sugar and blood pressure regulation. That's a lot! Many studies have found an inverse relationship between vitamin D status and autoimmune disorders, diabetes, eczema, cancer, depression, and more. The current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is set at 400IU per day for infants, 600IU per day for children and adults alike, and 800IU for the elderly.
SOURCES OF VITAMIN D
Vitamin D from the Sun
The sun doesn’t give you vitamin D3, it merely starts a process. Upon the skin’s exposure to the sun’s UVB rays, pre-vitamin D3 is converted to inactive vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). After conversion in the skin, cholecalciferol is quickly transported to the liver and then to the kidneys to be metabolized to active vitamin D3, also known as calcitriol. Therefore, if the liver or kidneys are not functioning properly, vitamin D status can be impaired.
However, the darkness of your skin, the fat deposition underneath your skin, and the coverage on your skin (including sunscreen and clothing) all play a role into if and how much pre-vitamin D3 is converted to cholecalciferol. If you have darker skin tone, are elderly (less fat under skin), wear a protective clothing layer, or apply a sunscreen greater than 10 SPF you will have reduced or no vitamin D3 conversion. Furthermore, the time of year and time of day also play an important factor. In latitudes above 42 degrees North (or below 42 degrees South), there is inadequate UVB radiation to support vitamin D synthesis from mid-October to mid-March. Keep in mind Bellingham is at 48 degrees North. Plus, the best time for good UVB exposure is between 10am – 2pm. Therefore, if you are working an indoor job from 9am to 5pm, are fully clothed, and wear sunscreen on your face, then you will not synthesize any vitamin D. And if you think you will get some vitamin D when sitting in a sunny spot inside, think again. It doesn’t matter what time of year it is, or time of day, if you are sitting in front of a window, all UVB rays will be blocked and you will not synthesize any vitamin D.
Nutritionist Tip: Get outside around noon for 15 minutes and expose your hands, arms, and face (without sunscreen) in the late Spring, Summer, and early Fall months to synthesize about 1000IU. Then you can layer on the sunscreen or seek shade.
Vitamin D from Food
Vitamin D is only found naturally in very few foods including fatty fish like salmon and sardines (340IU per 3oz), eggs (40IU per egg), and liver (40IU per 3oz). Mushrooms, although advertised as a source of vitamin D, often do not provide much useable vitamin D unless the grower purposefully has exposed the mushrooms to UV light. One cup of sliced “unexposed” crimini mushrooms only provides 5IU, whereas the “exposed” provides around 400IU. Ask your grocer what kind they offer. However, there are other foods on the market that are fortified with vitamin D such as dairy and plant milks, orange juice, and some cereals, usually providing anywhere between 50-100IU per serving.
Nutritionist Tip: Enjoy fatty seafood like salmon, UV “exposed” mushrooms, and fortified milk or non-dairy milks multiple times per week for substantial food sources of vitamin D.
Vitamin D from Supplements
Vitamin D supplements can be found as vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Vitamin D2 is synthesized via UV irradiation of yeast, whereas D3 is synthesized via UV irradiation of lanolin. However, research studies have found that vitamin D2 may not be as effective in increasing active (calcitriol) vitamin D3 serum levels. Taking supplements is essential when adequate dietary intake and proper sun exposure are lacking.
How Much to Supplement?
The optimal intake of vitamin D to support general health and wellbeing remains controversial. Researchers have found a U shaped curve regarding vitamin D status, indicating that both low and high vitamin D serum levels are correlated with disease development and progression. The Linus Pauling Institute recommends that generally healthy adults supplement with 2000IU of vitamin D3 daily. Some may need more or less depending on all the factors discussed previously. However, more is not always better! High dose vitamin D supplementation that is not monitored can lead to abnormally high serum calcium concentrations which can damage the kidneys and heart. Research suggests that daily intakes of less than 10,000IU per day in healthy individuals is very unlikely to result in toxicity.
Nonetheless, it is best to test not guess! Work with a health care practitioner to check your vitamin D status 1-2x per year to get a feel for what your unique needs are. Research studies suggest that a serum vitamin D concentration between 40 ng/mL and 60 ng/mL is ideal.
Nutritionist Tip: Supplement with 1000 - 2000IU per day and check your vitamin D levels annually to ensure a serum vitamin D between 40-60ng/mL. Make sure to check your multivitamin, as they often already contain some vitamin D.
RESOURCES FOR THE INSPIRED INDIVIDUAL
Overall, low vitamin D status can impact your health in many ways. Unfortunately, testing vitamin D status is not as routine as it should be, especially here in the Pacific Northwest. Ensuring optimal vitamin D levels year round can help keep you feeling your best. Be an advocate for yourself and request vitamin D labs at your annual doctors visit or see the resources below for more helpful research, testing, guidelines, and applications.
Krause’s Food & The Nutrition Care Process, 14thEdition. Pages: 1071-1072.
Linus Pauling Institute. Vitamin D. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-D#RDA
GrassrootsHealth. Resources. https://grassrootshealth.net/documentation/
Like to read? Then get your evidence based nutrition information here! All posts written by Selva Wohlgemuth, MS, RDN Functional Nutritionist & Clinical Dietitian